Findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey showed that a low level of maternal vitamin D during pregnancy was associated with greater fat mass among children at 6 years of age.

Mechanistic research suggested that epigenetic marks were important in this relationship as maternal levels of vitamin D were strongly related with methylation at sites in the promoter region of umbilical cord retinoid-X-receptor A.

These findings have influenced the development of our interventions during preconception and pregnancy.