Epigenetic gene promoter methylation at birth is associated with the child’s later adiposity,1 and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-γ-co-activator-1α promoter methylation in blood at 5–7 years is associated with adiposity from 9 to 14 years;2 genetic differences alone explain, at best, 25% of neonatal methylome variation, with the remaining 75% explained by the interaction of genetic differences with the prenatal environment.3
A peer-led behavioural intervention enhances women’s sense of control, a determinant of nutritional status in disadvantaged communities.4
Women do not prepare for pregnancy to any great extent, and although they modify some health behaviours during pregnancy, the quality of their diet differs little from before pregnancy;5,6,7 the factor most strongly associated with the quality of infant and childhood diets is the quality of the mother’s diet before conception.8
Excessive weight gain and low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy are linked to programmed differences in fat mass in the offspring.9,10
Professor Hazel Inskip
Professor Keith Godfrey
Professor Clive Osmond
Professor Sian Robinson
Dr Janis Baird
Dr Mary Barker
Godfrey KM, Sheppard A, Gluckman PD, Lillycrop KA, Burdge GC, McLean C, Rodford J, Slater-Jefferies JL, Garratt E, Crozier SR, Emerald BS, Gale CR, Inskip HM, Cooper C, Hanson MA. Epigenetic Gene Promoter Methylation at Birth Is Associated With Child’s Later Adiposity. Diabetes 2011;60:1528-1534.
Clarke-Harris R, Wilkin TJ, Hosking J, Pinkney J, Jeffery AN, Metcalf BS, Godfrey KM, Voss LD, Lillycrop KA, Burdge GC. Peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-gamma-co-activator-1alpha promoter methylation in blood at 5-7 years predicts adiposity from 9 to 14 years (EarlyBird 50). Diabetes. In press, 2014.
Teh AL, Pan H, Chen L, Ong ML, Dogra S, Wong J, et al. including Barton S & Godfrey K. The effect of genotype and in utero environment on inter-individual variation in neonate DNA methylomes: Evidence for interaction of genetic and environmental effects. Genome Research. In press 2014.
Lawrence W, Black C, Tinati T, Cradock S, Begum R, Jarman M, Pease A, Margett B, Davies J, Inskip H, Cooper C, Baird J, Barker M. Making every contact count’: longitudinal evaluation of the impact of training in behaviour change on the work of health and social care practitioners. J Health Psychol. In press 2014.
Crozier SR, Robinson SM, Borland SE, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Inskip HM. Do women change their health behaviours in pregnancy? Findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2009;23:446-453.
Crozier SR, Robinson SM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Inskip HM. Women’s dietary patterns change little from before to during pregnancy. J Nutr 2009;139:1956-1963.
Inskip HM, Crozier SR, Godfrey KM, Borland SE, Cooper C, Robinson SM. Women’s compliance with nutrition and lifestyle recommendations before pregnancy: general population cohort study. BMJ 2009;338:b481.
Fisk CM, Crozier SR, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Robinson SM. Influences on the quality of young children’s diets: the importance of maternal food choices. Br J Nutr 2011;105:287-296.
Crozier SR, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Harvey NC, Cole ZA, Robinson SM. Weight gain in pregnancy and childhood body composition: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1745-1751.
Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Robinson SM. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with adiposity in the offspring: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:57-63.