• Improving dietary micronutrient quality pre-conceptionally and during pregnancy among women in urban Indian slums reduces the prevalence of low birthweight: and gestational diabetes mellitus.
  • Nutrient deficiencies in the 1-Carbon pathway in pregnant Indian women are associated with obesity and gestational diabetes1, and low birthweight, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring.4
  • Gestational diabetes in the mother is associated with increased adiposity, insulin resistance and autonomic stress responses in the children.2, 5
  • Skeletal and soft tissue growth in early life show differing associations with adult health and human capital in low and middle income countries.3

Programme Leaders:

  • Professor Caroline Fall
  • Professor Clive Osmond
  • Dr Kalyanaraman Kumaran


  1. Krishnaveni GV, Hill JC, Veena SR, Bhat DS, Wills AK, Karat CL, Yajnik CS, Fall CH. Low plasma vitamin B(12) in pregnancy is associated with gestational ‘diabesity’ and later diabetes. Diabetologia 2009;52:2350-2358.
  2. Krishnaveni GV, Veena SR, Hill JC, Kehoe S, Karat SC, Fall CH. Intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with higher adiposity and insulin resistance and clustering of cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Diabetes Care 2010;33:402-404.
  3. Adair LS, Fall CH, Osmond C, Stein AD, Martorell R, Ramirez-Zea M, Sachdev HS, Dahly DL, Bas I, Norris SA, Micklesfield L, Hallal P, Victora CG. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies. Lancet 2013;382:525-534.
  4. Krishnaveni GV, Veena SR, Karat SC, Yajnik CS, Fall CH. Association between maternal folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in Indian children. Diabetologia 2014;57:110-121.
  5. Krishnaveni GV, Veena SR, Jones A, Bhat DS, Malathi MP, Hellhammer D, Srinivasan K, Upadya H, Kurpad AV, Fall CHD. Trier’s Social Stress Test for children: testing the methodology for Indian adolescents. Indian Pediatrics. In press 2014.