• Growth in utero and in infancy are determinants of adult bone mass, bone geometry, microarchitecture, strength and fracture risk.1-5
  • Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired musculoskeletal development in the offspring,6-9 and DNA methylation in the promoter region of genes controlling vitamin D action (RXRA) is associated with childhood bone mass.10
  • Age-related neurological and musculoskeletal comorbidities are associated with increased fracture risk and may be of value in risk prediction algorithms used in clinical practice.11-13
  • Strontium ranelate therapy, evaluated in a worldwide, pivotal, double-blind placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial is associated with an attenuation of joint space narrowing, and reduced knee pain, in osteoarthritis of the knee,14 but may be attended by elevated cardiovascular risk,15 which restricts its use to an appropriate subset of patients at risk.

Programme Leaders:

  • Professor Cyrus Cooper
  • Professor Elaine Dennison
  • Professor Nicholas Harvey
  • Professor Nigel Arden
  • Dr Kassim Javaid


  1. Baird J, Kurshid MA, Kim M, Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Does birthweight predict bone mass in adulthood? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 2011;22:1323-1334.
  2. Javaid MK, Eriksson JG, Kajantie E, Forsen T, Osmond C, Barker DJ, Cooper C. Growth in childhood predicts hip fracture risk in later life. Osteoporos Int 2011;22:69-73.
  3. Javaid MK, Prieto-Alhambra D, Lui LY, Cawthon P, Arden NK, Lang T, Lane NE, Orwoll E, Barrett-Conner E, Nevitt MC, Cooper C, Cummings SR. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in elderly men: MrOS. J Bone Miner Res 2011;26:1802-1807.
  4. Tandon N, Fall CH, Osmond C, Sachdev HP, Prabhakaran D, Ramakrishnan L, Dey Biswas SK, Ramji S, Khalil A, Gera T, Reddy KS, Barker DJ, Cooper C, Bhargava SK. Growth from birth to adulthood and peak bone mass and density data from the New Delhi Birth Cohort. Osteoporos Int 2012;23:2447-2459.
  5. Kuh D, Wills AK, Shah I, Prentice A, Hardy R, Adams JE, Ward K, Cooper C. Growth from birth to adulthood and bone phenotype in early old age: a british birth cohort study. J Bone Miner Res 2014;29:123-133.
  6. Cole ZA, Gale CR, Javaid MK, Robinson SM, Law C, Boucher BJ, Crozier SR, Godfrey KM, Dennison EM, Cooper C. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and childhood bone mass: a longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res 2009;24:663-668.
  7. Mahon P, Harvey N, Crozier S, Inskip H, Robinson S, Arden N, Swaminathan R, Cooper C, Godfrey K. Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: cohort study. J Bone Miner Res 2010;25:14-19.
  8. Ioannou C, Javaid MK, Mahon P, Yaqub MK, Harvey NC, Godfrey KM, Noble JA, Cooper C, Papageorghiou AT. The effect of maternal vitamin d concentration on fetal bone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E2070-E2077.
  9. Harvey NC, Moon RJ, Sayer AA, Ntani G, Davies JH, Javaid MK, Robinson SM, Godfrey KM, Inskip HM, Cooper C. Maternal Antenatal Vitamin D Status and Offspring Muscle Development: Findings From the Southampton Women’s Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:330-337.
  10. Harvey NC, Sheppard A, Godfrey KM, McLean C, Garratt E, Ntani G, Davies L, Murray R, Inskip HM, Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Lillycrop KA, Cooper C. Childhood Bone Mineral Content Is Associated With Methylation Status of the RXRA Promoter at Birth. J Bone Miner Res 2014;29:600-607.
  11. Bazelier MT, van Staa TP, Uitdehaag BM, Cooper C, Leufkens HG, Vestergaard P, Herings RM, de Vries F. Risk of fractures in patients with multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study. Neurology 2012;78:1967-1973.
  12. Dennison EM, Compston JE, Flahive J, Siris ES, Gehlbach SH, Adachi JD, Boonen S, Chapurlat R, Diez-Perez A, Anderson Jr.FA, Hooven FH, LaCroix AZ, Lindsay R, Netelenbos JC, Pfeilschifter J, Rossini M, Roux C, Saag KG, Sambrook P, Silverman S, Watts NB, Greenspan SL, Premaor M, Cooper C. Effect of co-morbidities on fracture risk: Findings from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Bone 2012;50:1288-1293.
  13. Gregson CL, Dennison EM, Compston JE, Adami S, Adachi JD, Anderson FA, Jr., Boonen S, Chapurlat R, Diez-Perez A, Greenspan SL, Hooven FH, LaCroix AZ, Nieves JW, Netelenbos JC, Pfeilschifter J, Rossini M, Roux C, Saag KG, Silverman S, Siris ES, Watts NB, Wyman A, Cooper C. Disease-specific perception of fracture risk and incident fracture rates: GLOW cohort study. Osteoporos Int 2014;25:85-95.
  14. Reginster JY, Badurski J, Bellamy N, Bensen W, Chapurlat R, Chevalier X, Christiansen C, Genant H, Navarro F, Nasonov E, Sambrook PN, Spector TD, Cooper C. Efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: results of a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:179-186.
  15. Cooper C, Fox KM, Borer JS. Ischaemic cardiac events and use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a nested case-control study in the CPRD. Osteoporos Int 2014;25:737-745.